Elements Of Cryptanalysis, Training Pamphlet No. by William F. Friedman Collection nsa-friedman; nsa-archive; nationalsecurityarchive;. THE ANALYSIS OF CIPHERS Paragraphs Section I Preliminary definitions and explanations. 1. The elements of an alphabetical language 3. Elements of Cryptanalysis by William F Friedman, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.

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William Friedman —trained as a plant geneticist at Cornell University, was employed at Riverbank Laboratories by the eccentric millionaire George Fabyan to work on wheat breeding. His most significant, indeed pathbreaking, work used ideas from genetics and statistics, focusing on analysis of the frequencies of letters in language use.

Although he had transitioned from being a geneticist to a cryptographer, his earlier work had resonance in his later pursuits. He soon began working directly for the United States government and produced solutions used to cryptanapysis complex military ciphers, in particular to break the Japanese Purple crytpanalysis during World War II.

Another important legacy of his work was the establishment of the Signal Intelligence Service and eventually the National Security Agency.

A code is a rule that governs how one piece cryptqnalysis information is converted into a different representation of that information.

Both language and writing are elegant examples of codes developed to transmit complex concepts using symbols. Humans have used codes for millennia to communicate and to prevent communications from being discovered. The scientific approach to secret communications is a field known as cryptography. Modern cryptography makes use of complex mathematical algorithms, rather than symbols, to transform messages into encrypted forms. Decoding cryptograms requires intelligence and creativity, and this type of expertise is of great value in military strategy and tactics.

The science of genetics is intertwined with the science of coding, since genetic material itself contains a code that is ultimately translated into proteins by cells. Cryptqnalysis could argue that our understanding of heredity was, in part, a process criedman decoding nature.

Beginning in the early s, the nature of the genetic code could, at last, be investigated directly and the precise relationship between nucleotides and elemens synthesis was established. Preceding this, however, geneticists had long been accustomed to using codes for the loci that control the presence or absence of traits and the various allelic forms of a gene.

Thus, codes and coding have long been a part of understanding modern genetics and may be an important part of the allure of this field of science. William Friedman — was a plant genetics student at Cornell University between and During this time, he taught introductory and advanced genetics and conducted research on maize with Rollins Emerson at Cornell and George Shull at Cold Spring Harbor, both pioneers in the field of genetics and breeding. Friedman eventually left the field of genetics and developed a cryptanalywis of approaches friedamn encryption that were to revolutionize the field of cryptography.

His critical pathbreaking work relied on statistical approaches to languages, focusing on analysis of the frequencies of letters in language use. Friedman is considered the father of modern cryptography. Wolfe Frederic Friedman, later William F.

Friedman, was born in in Kishinev, which is now part of the Republic of Moldova. His father Frederic was from Bucharest and cryptanalsis as a translator and interpreter in the Russian postal service.

William F. Friedman

His mother, Rosa Trust, was from Kishinev. Restrictions imposed by Russian authorities following the assassination of Alexander II inhowever, made life difficult for Jews, and many thousands began emigrating. The Friedmans followed this path and came to Pittsburgh, PA inwhere Frederic worked for the Singer sewing machine company and Rosa worked for a clothing company Clark The family was in near-constant debt and struggled to make ends meet.

Nevertheless, America provided a welcome refuge and they became American citizens in William Friedman was a precocious child with interests in science and agriculture. A detailed description is provided in the story for the solution of a substitution cipher that employed the frequencies of letters. There, among other topics, the members debated the merits of Zionism, the nationalistic movement that espoused the reestablishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

Zionism had sprung up in the 19th century as a reaction to anti-Semitism in Europe. The movement had an agrarian emphasis, whereby collective farms would be established so that a people who had largely been displaced from agriculture for thousands of years could return to work the soil.


Friedman was passionate about these ideas, and this became part of his inspiration to enroll in Michigan Agricultural College in Lansing, MI in to study agricultural genetics. Leaving Michigan after 6 months, Friedman enrolled at Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, where he was a student of the newly developing science of genetics. He spent his summers working at Cold Spring Harbor with C.

Shull was a pioneer in plant genetics concerned with the relationship between inbreeding and outbreeding, as well as the development of hybrid corn Murphy and Kass Davenport was a biologist and leader of the eugenics movement in the United States, founding the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations in Friedman also served as an assistant in undergraduate courses, including genetics and advanced genetics in Murphy and Kass In trying to convince Friedman to join the work at Riverbank, Fabyan wrote him a letter encouraging him to use genetics to improve crop adaptation and productivity: Where did I get this problem?

Leaving Cornell, Friedman joined Fabyan at Riverbank. He did not publish any scientific articles from his graduate work at Cornell or produce a graduate thesis.

After a stint working in the Chicago office of that firm, the independently wealthy Fabyan decided to develop a laboratory to fund his pet scientific pursuits, among them the new science of genetics. Fabyan hobnobbed with many influential people both in the United States and abroad. For his public service work, the governor of Illinois awarded him an honorary title of colonel, by which he was known throughout his life.

Fabyan began buying up land on the Fox River near Geneva in Munson Fabyan also added a genetics research laboratory, including cryptabalysis fields and greenhouses. The other plant geneticist hired at Riverbank to complete the genetics department was Karl Sax — Sax was likely identified as a candidate for Riverbank through some of cryptanwlysis same Harvard connections by which Fabyan found Friedman.

Sax eoements an undergraduate at Washington State College when he married his cytology teacher, Dr. Hally Jolivette, a native of Wisconsin. Jolivette took a position at Wellesley College in Massachusetts in and Sax began his studies at the Bussey Institute, at that time under the direction of Edward Murray East.

After working briefly at the University of California, Berkeley, Sax was hired at Riverbank in to work in plant breeding. Sax and Jolivette found Riverbank to be fascinating but also unnerving, as Fabyan had taken a romantic interest in Jolivette. He became cryptanalyssis prolific researcher and horticultural plant breeder; developing new strains of apples, magnolias, cherries, and forsythias, and his work on X ray-induced mutagenesis was pioneering in plant breeding and plant genetics.

He served as director of the Arnold Arboretum, where the Bussey Institute had been located, from to Riverbank Laboratories was an eccentric place. All of the chairs, beds, and furniture were hung from the ceilings with chains to facilitate the cleaning of the floors Munson Fabyan wore knickerbocker suits, as if he were an equestrian which he was not. A giant Dutch windmill was transported to Riverbank at great expense, where it sat on a nearby island in Fox River.

Fabyan worked with world-famous designers and architects on the property, including Frank Lloyd Wright, whom Fabyan hired in to remodel the farmhouse into a statelier villa Munsonand a landscape gardener from Japan who was presented to Fabyan by the Japanese royal family.

Fabyan had served as informal consul to the Japanese government before the official consulate in Chicago was developed Munson Over the years, Fabyan hosted many Japanese dignitaries and built an expansive formal Japanese garden. Fabyan delighted in giving tours to academics and politicians; he had a friendship with Theodore Roosevelt and hosted a visit to Riverbank by Albert Einstein.

Fabyan had long used codes in his cotton business dealings as a way to disguise the meaning of communications and telegrams Kranz Delia Bacon published her work in but suffered a mental rcyptanalysis shortly thereafter and died in Others also became intrigued by the story of the Bacon—Shakespeare connection. Elizabeth Wells Gallup —together with her sister Kate Wells, worked on solving the Baconian ciphers while working as a high school principal.

But critics noted how unlikely it might be that Bacon would ov to all that trouble to write some of the most famous works of literature in the English language simply as a vehicle for passing along encoded messages; nevertheless the notion of a secret embedded in these great works captivated the imagination of many, including Fabyan and Gallup.


Fabyan hired Elizabeth Gallup to lead this effort. She believed that the differing fonts in the First Folio were part of a bilateral cipher, where each slightly differing font would symbolize a particular substitution of a letter. Such ciphers were commonplace at the time and used to protect official communications from prying eyes.

Military cryptanalysis – William F. Friedman – Google Books

Bacon had developed a bilateral cipher, described in one of his famous works known as De Augmentis Scientiarum. To send a message with this sort of cipher, one would first create a sentence with five times as many letters as those wlements the original message.

Then, marked letters would be indicated with a different font, such as italic, which would contrast with the normal font of the other letters.

Students of genetics will immediately realize a similarity of such cipher problems to problems in genetics. The abstract nature of genetics problems, in which a letter stands for a particular purine or pyrimidine base, a set of letters for a codon, and a string of letters as a DNA sequence, attracts those who have a natural fondness for codes and ciphers.

The elder Sax commented: They did their work in elmeents Villa.

Interestingly, inafter completing his service at the Arboretum, Sax took occupancy of an office on the second floor of the Harvard biological building on Divinity Avenue in Cambridge, MA.

One of his floor mates was the newly hired assistant professor James D. Shortly after his arrival at Riverbank, Friedman was conscripted by Gallup to apply his self-taught photography skills to the Baconian cipher problem.

Later, Elizebeth joined Gallup at Riverbank and began working with Friedman, whom she eventually married in Figure 2. Elizebeth Smith — became a prominent cryptographer in her own right, frieddman often with her husband on complex frierman ciphers. From this point, Friedman largely left the cryptqnalysis of genetics and both he and Elizebeth dedicated themselves flements developing the science of modern cryptography.

About this departure, Friedman said he felt as though he had been seduced to leave an honorable profession genetics for one with a slight odor cryptography. In an ironic twist, decades cryptanalhsis, after they retired, William and Elizebeth wrote the definitive work irrefutably demonstrating that the Baconian ciphers of Owen and Gallup were printing errors due entirely to worn and damaged type or even ink fo during the printing process, and therefore had nothing to do with codes of any kind Friedman and Friedman During World War I, Riverbank became ctyptanalysis leading center of cryptographic work due to the work of Friedman, Smith, and others in their circle.

Because Riverbank had assembled such a well-known working group in the area of codes and ciphers, the United Crypganalysis Government offices sent them messages that needed to be decrypted. Their success in doing so led Fabyan to ask the intelligence office of the War Department if Riverbank staff could be of help in the war effort. The United States found itself highly unprepared to deal with encrypted messages during the war, and Riverbank provided much-needed assistance for the allied war effort.

During this time, a cipher bureau known as Military Intelligence 8 was set up in Washington, DC under the direction of Herbert Yardley, and Riverbank became a training ground for recruits to the bureau. The course was directed by Friedman and began his lifelong passion for organizing and assembling key information about cryptography which would be used crypranalysis.

InFriedman wrote a revolutionary article called The Index of Coincidence and its Applications in Cryptography Friedmanwhich explained how statistical techniques could be used in cryptanalysis. In this approach, two cryptograms are placed side by side and counts are made of the number of times the same letters occur in the same place in both texts.

The degree to which they coappear is called the index of coincidence. The technique is a probabilistic approach to solving codes and is similar to using correlation analysis to understand biological phenomena.