Imagined communities: constructing collective identities in medieval Europe by Andrzej Pleszczyński() 6 editions published in in English and held by Myśliwski, Grzegorz: Początki związków Wrocławia i Hanzy niemieckiej. Chabrowski, Igor: Chongqing i kultura popularna, f — w Malinowski, Marek I.: Dzieje Afryki Południowej od ery prehistorycznej do końca XVI w. Lubeka · Królowa Hanzy. Ludwigshafen · Osnabrück · Kultura pamięci. Poczdam · Fabryka .. Trudno się dziwić, że tak wiele dzieje się tu na zewnątrz.

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Moore and Sophus Reinert The study of the history of financial hany, markets, instruments and concepts is vital if we are to understand the role played by finance today. At the same time, the methodologies developed by finance academics can provide a new perspective for historical studies.

Palgrave Studies in the U of Finance is a multi-disciplinary effort to emphasise the role played by finance in the past, and what lessons historical experiences have for us. It presents original research, in both authored monographs and edited collections, from historians, finance academics and economists, as well as financial practitioners. Please contact your bookseller or, in case of difficulty, write to us at the address below with your name and address, the title of the series and the ISBN quoted above.

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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Money — Europe — History.

Finance — Europe — History. Nevertheless, the financial history of Central Europe during the Middle Ages has lain outside the mainstream of scholarly interest for a long time.

All of the chapters are based on primary sources. They focus on both the broader context of monetary and fiscal policy and the analysis of different types of accounting sources. The authors pay attention to technical questions relating to the ways in which accounting entries have been recorded; how taxes, loans, debts, credit and account books themselves have been organized.

Further, they consider what light these accounts can shed on everyday life, including on the value of things and their exchange, prosopographical possibilities and what they reveal about habitual practices. The contributions draw on late medieval sources found in various archives in Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary. They allow us to investigate the institutions in which they originated, and to reconstruct the budget of a given originator or the supply of money in circulation.

Nevertheless, working with a large number and variety of documents gives rise to considerable methodical problems. Some of the following chapters therefore also analyse the internal structure and genesis of accounts to demonstrate how such sources, which seem at first sight to be standardized and homogeneous, are in fact, much more diverse and problematic on closer examination.

The analysis of late medieval financial sources from Central Europe can help us to explain aspects of the economy and society at that time, as well as everyday life in the broadest sense of the word.

It also contributes to debates on the structure of such records and the methods used by their creators. At the same time it can introduce these questions and materials to an English speaking community of historians and thus serve as a basis for comparison with financial conditions in Western Europe.

This will allow a better understanding of how Central Europe can properly be incorporated into European history.

The first thematic part is concerned with money and minting. At the same time he explains how innovations in monetary theory and in finance originated in and around the major hanzj in Central Europe. Michael North deals with 16th-century monetary reforms in the Holy Roman Empire. These have been traditionally regarded as a failure by monetary historians and numismatists, but his chapter clarifies the communication processes between the Imperial Estates princes and cities in Northern Germany and the reformers working on behalf of the emperor.

In particular, the differing interests between princes and cities and their strategies to gain support on the Imperial Diet Reichstag is examined. His analysis of the Kremnica town book of accounts from to makes it possible to explore the structure of regular tax incomes, terms of tax collections, financial reserves and various expenses of this mining town.


The book of accounts also contains information about the changing values of silver and gold coins, an issue which was of great importance for currency conditions in the whole Kingdom of Hungary. The second part consists of five chapters related to medieval court funding. Kultyra extraordinary source of income allowed the king not just to expand the territory of the county of Luxembourg, but also to acquire Upper Lusatia and Silesia.

Tyszka, Przemyslaw [WorldCat Identities]

The chapter also deals with the activities and personal careers of four main creditors of the king: King Sigismund of Luxembourg frequently resorted to pledging royal properties and this policy is the subject of two chapters: Their studies are based on the analysis of sums pledged in relation to the annual issues of the pledged property as well as to other duties that the recipients were expected to fulfil.

They also pay close attention to the legal phrasing and political rhetoric of pledge deeds, the size of the financial sums paid by pledgees as well as their personal stories.

They study the techniques and operating procedures found in the accounting records used in the town offices of Bohemia and Moravia before Their proposed methodology is based on the examination of accounting institutes balance sheet, final accounts and accounting record keeping particularly principles of continuity, balance sheet and completeness of records from the moment of their origin through their subsequent development.

At the same time, the authors present the first results from their analysis of the accounting books of the City of Olomouc in comparison with sources from other town offices in Bohemia and Moravia. This chapter focuses on fragments from lost accounting books, based on the assessment and interpretation of some direct references to them as well as on their indirect reflections in other sources. The author tries to answer the question of how much they were used by Breslau merchants.

He also considers wider trends in the development of the economic administration in the city, including the use of double-entry bookkeeping. The fourth part is focused on the role of money in the church. The chapter highlights the different sources of payments for cardinal legates and other types of legates and nuncios, varying from procuratio canonica to individual benefices and the central income of the papal chamber, and how these changed from the 11th to the 16th centuries.

Although its findings are wide-ranging, its main attention is on legations in Central Europe.

This research is based on a thorough analysis of weekly building accounts dated back to — The chapter grapples with methodological questions such as what has been recorded in the accounts and, equally importantly, what has been not recorded kulturra in what manner the entry was made.

The accounts also shed light on wider economic questions. They are an invaluable source of information on the price of building materials and the living standards of the craftsmen working on the building site. In this way the author tries to quantify the total expenses for various building activities in particular years. The final contribution analyses four accounting registers and two fragments of the Prague Metropolitan Chapter from towhich have been quite unknown until now.

The chapter poses important questions concerning hanyz methods, the material conditions of residential canons and the chapter economy shortly before the Hussite Revolution. Acknowledgements I would like to pay tribute to a number of institutions and people who have helped to make this volume possible.

It is the output of the international conference which would not have come into being without the generous financial support of my home Faculty of Humanities at Charles University in Prague and of the Centre for Medieval Studies, joint workplace of Charles University and the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, which provided lecture hall with all needed facilities.

Moore and Martin Allen for enforcement of their intent to publish conference papers within the Palgrave Studies in the History of Finance series and to the editorial team of Palgrave Macmillan, who showed the highest professional skill and flexibility in handling the project from start dzidje finish. I would also like to offer heartfelt thanks to Tony K.

Last but not least, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my wife and my sister for their continuous support. His field of interest is late medieval ecclesiastical, cultural and political history with special attention to Central Europe and Italy. His research interests include numismatics and monetary history, the history of economic thought, business and banking history. Her research interests also include watermills and water management in the Middle Ages and the history of Kuultura Mercantile Exchange.

In her recent monograph, she pays attention to Peter kjltura Danzig in context with the story of a great caravel in — He focuses on the study of medieval mentality and economy with special attention to long-distance trade.


His main field of interest is medieval economic and urban history of Central Europe. His research focuses on accounting and banking in general. Her research interest focuses on economic theories and economic and legal history, particularly the history of accounting.

Medieval building and Anglo-Bohemian relations are his main areas of research. His research focuses on medieval towns, mining and long-distance trade. His research in the field of monetary and financial history concerns medieval trade and cultural exchange between Venice and Bohemia, papal collections management in Central Europe, taxation of late medieval towns, ready money of pilgrims and circulation of gold in Italy.

He also participated in the international project regarding the Fuchsenhof hoard Der Schatzfund von Fuchsenhof He specializes in the era of King John the Blind, medieval nobility and court culture.

Tyszka, Przemyslaw

He is working on the annotated critical edition of the Chronicon Aulae Regiae. Medieval Finance in Central European Historiography Dzeje Zaoral Theoretical concepts The economic history in the first two decades after World War II belonged, without exaggeration, to the most dynamically developing branch of historiography, which is in stark contrast to the situation at the end of the 20th century.

In particular two factors had influence on it: The works of Marxist historians produced the greatest responses and polemics. The question of the so-called first crisis of feudalism in the 14th and 15th centuries was one of the key topics. The point was to distinguish economic crises from depressions and to differentiate the crises that define feudalism from those that are typical for capitalism.

A true breakthrough in the Marxist economic historiography was the work of the Polish historian Witold Kula Teoria ekonomiczna ustroju feudalnego. It is an idiosyncratic synthesis of serial history and Marxist theory enriched by Kula with his own perspective on the behaviour of economic participants.

Kalendarium historii Wrocławia

Kula examined structural changes and fluctuations within the boom-bust cycle in combination with emphasis on the contradictions of feudal system. He pointed to different starting institutional and social conditions of feudalism as against capitalism the absence of free market and competition, the existence of nonmarket phenomena like serfdom and guildswhich forced economic participants to markedly different hanzt from that based on profit maximization and cost minimization.

The peasant used the market in fact only because he received money for amortization of his obligations towards manorial lords. That is the reason for the specific logic of behaviour that reacts to price fluctuations in the market in a manner completely contrary to that which modern economics would assume: First of all, it is noteworthy that the improving conditions for foreign trade particularly for corn export did not affect the total structure of production and consumption in any clear way, no matter how they managed to generate considerable profits for manorial lords.

The reason was the general orientation of the Polish aristocratic dominion, which was not focused outwardly on foreign markets but inwardly on the peasant, his unpaid work and the surplus from which it benefited. This way a specific form of closed monetary circle formed which Kula suitably describes as the economic hnazy mobile. Central European Historiography 3 The quantification of economic phenomena was the most used method of economic history in the s and s.

One of the main initiators of dzieme method in Germany at that time, Wilhelm Abel, studied the development of price relations and wages which for him represented a key indicator of the state of economy. Price and wage fluctuations made it possible to determine the stages of economic growth and decline. The historians in Central Europe tried to ukltura statistically specified price series, following the serial history of Ernest Labrousse.

From a methodological point of view, however, it was necessary to obtain homogeneous data prices of certain products, incomes of concrete social groups as far as possible to create a sufficiently representative series. However, this need and effort often met with a lack of sources for the medieval period in Central Europe. In comparison with social and cultural history, the conceptual and theoretical impulses of economic anthropology got to the discourse of economic history only gradually and with considerable delay.

Alternative views began to emerge only in the late s and it is not without interest that the problem of debt, credit and the origin of money stood at the centre of their interest. The economic crisis of further deepened this focus. Areas of research In Poland the most important role on the institutional level was ,ultura by the Institute of the History of Material Culture in Warsaw.